A GRAM IN TIME
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The start of the expansion phase of this international trade may be dated back to the early s, in particular with the appearance of the Colombian cocaine cartels and the opening of the Balkan route for heroin destined for Europe, as a result of the explosion in Afghan opium production caused by the Afghan war.
In the early s, the synthetic drug craze further diversified and stepped up traffickers' activities in all regions of the planet. For a long time, sub-Saharan Africa seemed to remain at the margins of these phenomena. This in fact merely signalled a quantitative jump in trafficking as hundreds of African drug couriers, mainly Nigerians, swallowing heroin and cocaine filled condoms, had been arrested around the world since the early s. The situation is now the oil price dubai per gram in nigeria enough that the African countries represented at the International Narcotics Convention held in Vienna in late March to asked the U.
While, unlike the other continents, sub-Saharan Africa is not a production centre for chemical drugs intended for the international market, the cultivation of cannabis for local markets is developing exponentially virtually everywhere, to the point where it constitutes a threat for regional production, in particular food production.
Sub-Saharan Africa is thus a not negligible consumer market for virtually all drugs, supplied by a host of small rings. Traffickers also use its land, water and air routes to transport hashish and heroin from Southwest Asia in particular and cocaine from Latin America to Europe and the United States.
Lastly, while Africa occupies only a marginal position in global money laundering operations, drugs play a not negligible role in conflicts being waged in the oil price dubai per gram in nigeria its regions.
Contrary to what may be observed in countries such as Colombia and Burma, drugs do not appear to be one of the major causes of the difficulties experienced by numerous sub-Saharan African countries, but rather one of the consequences.
However, by reacting to situations of crisis, they become an aggravating factor: Although cannabis appears to have been present in certain African regions East, Central and Southern Africait does not appear to have penetrated West Africa until the last half century.
Ovens used to make pipes for smoking marijuana have been found in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia dating back to the XIIth century. Asian cannabis was imported to Africa by Arab, Persian and Indian traders, who opened trading posts on the East Coast of the continent.
From there it gradually moved southward and eastward, reaching Southern Africa around the XVth century. However, cannabis was not introduced to most of the countries of West Africa until after the Second World War, by Nigerian and Ghanaian soldiers who had fought with British troops in Burma and had become accustomed to smoking marijuana in their camps in India.
They started the dissemination of cannabis throughout the region, except perhaps in Senegal and Gambia, where it may have been introduced in the early XXth century by Arab traders.
This African history of cannabis influences its present uses and functions. In those countries where it was introduced long ago, it is still used for therapeutic and ritual purposes. In West Africa, however, the oil price dubai per gram in nigeria is only used recreationally or to excess. Cannabis consumption was nevertheless relatively limited and often socially controlled until the s, when there was an observed increase in the areas of cannabis under cultivation for commercial purposes and the cannabis crop became an increasingly important factor in agricultural production systems.
The ensuing institutional void forced populations to find alternative economic activities. As a result, traffickers gradually took over these recently abandoned spaces the oil price dubai per gram in nigeria took charge of activities hitherto overseen by the state, in both urban and rural areas.
This is proven by a very thorough study conducted in in five West African countries for the OGD by agricultural development experts in Africa. While a peasant earns 2. The price of that same kilo may be multiplied by 60 when resold at retail in Abidjan and byfor example, in the streets of Ouagadougou Burkina Faso.
Cannabis crops are thus "a solution to the property and economic barriers that mainly penalize the young generations". It also offers an employment alternative to urban youths who obtain their marijuana supplies in their native villages and resell in the cities. The survey in the five countries concerned of course reveals disparities in the price of marijuana. As other OGD studies have shown, prices vary in this range in the other regions the oil price dubai per gram in nigeria sub-Saharan Africa.
As a result of the comparative advantage of cannabis, areas under cultivation have expanded considerably in most countries. However, there are no reliable data to quantify this expansion, as African governments merely provide sporadic data on seizures which are not representative of the areas under cultivation. In addition, international organizations pay little attention to the production of a "soft" drug such as cannabis, which moreover is mainly intended for domestic markets.
Kenya is one of the only African countries where opium poppy crops have also been proven. In Central Africa, Cameroon and the Congo-Brazzaville, there are major producers, in the last case as a result of the civil war. For the same reason, its neighbour, the Democratic Republic of the Congo has the largest areas under cultivation. This of course discourages peasants engaged in food crops. The most obvious consequence of this situation is a trend toward abandoning food crops in favour of cannabis.
This phenomenon is most evident in countries affected by civil war, where lack of the oil price dubai per gram in nigeria pushes peasants to maximize risks: Thus cannabis cultivation has attained a scope unknown prior to in the agricultural areas around Brazzaville and in the Pool region, which supplies the Congo capital, as seen above, in the DRC.
In Northern Cameroon, where the ODG expert conducted his investigation, peasants told him that most of their cash incomes came from cannabis and that manioc and banana crops were only cultivated for show.
If this situation spreads in future, it will worsen the economic problems of many countries by forcing them to increase food imports and may create shortages, particularly in the major cities. Marijuana is the illegal drug in most widespread use across the African continent. Synthetic drugs are in second place disregarding traditional or industrial alcoholic beverages which, in Africa, as in most developed countries, represent the biggest problems from the oil price dubai per gram in nigeria public health standpoint.
These drugs, which are often taken in association with alcohol or marijuana, include Mandrax in Southern Africa, a drug manufactured from methaqualone and imported from India, or, in recent years, produced in local laboratories, or misappropriated psychotropic drugs such as amphetamine or barbiturate derivatives. It is all the oil price dubai per gram in nigeria easier to misappropriate these drugs since they are sold on the streets and in the markets of the cities, without any the oil price dubai per gram in nigeria control.
The use of these drugs is particularly widespread in the major cities of Senegal because what are locally known as "pions", pulls or khokh are commercialized on a large scale by the Muslim Brotherhood of the Mourides. However, whereas these psychotropic substances are used in Senegal on a recreational basis or are simply abused. In the urban centres of the Sahel countries, they are used in a more "utilitarian" way in an effort to increase productivity, particularly by workers in the informal sector: These kinds of uses in the cities have contaminated the rural areas of the Sahel region.
The use of psychotropic substances by rural inhabitants began following the great drought of At that time, in every bad year, there was a migratory movement toward the cities in the off-season, with a return occurring at the time of the first rains.
In this way, the rural inhabitants discovered drugs in the urban markets. Demographic pressure and the relative decline in agricultural prices forced farmers to produce more, precisely at the time when drug sellers appeared in the markets of the most isolated villages. Simultaneously with these types of uses, which are specific to Africa, others similar to those encountered in the developed countries are beginning to appear in the major urban centres.
Heroin brown sugar and cocaine most often in the form of crackwhich appeared in the West African market in the early s, are now in very widespread use, although that use is difficult to quantify, in the capitals of the sub-region mainly in the major cities of the Gulf of Guinea Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Although this could have been explained as the impact of international transit trafficking, this explanation now seems outmoded.
It appears that the African bosses now consider the Gulf of Guinea a unique and profitable drug market. In some instances, the drugs marketed there have transited through Europe. At the other end of the continent, South Africa's opening up to the world has increased the supply of drugs since The decline in Mandrax use coincided with the appearance of crack. The other the oil price dubai per gram in nigeria widespread drug, more particularly in the mixed race townships of Cape Town and Johannesburg, was Mandrax.
Since that time, the availability of this new drug has increased constantly, in Johannesburg first, then in Cape Town and now in Durban. Initially limited to the elites mainly whitecrack is now in all the communities and at all social levels. In springDr. The sharp rise in crack use went in lockstep with the development of a market for smokable heroin. Cape Town prostitutes, for example, had previously used methaqualone to offset the effects of crack. The decline of Mandrax resulted in a search for a new downer.
In Johannesburg, crack dealers were already offering their customers high-quality Pakistani brown heroin no. There are other indicators: The domestic drug markets are supplied by fragmented, unprofessional rings which most often thrive on the smuggling of legal products.
One former Abidjan conveyor, now unemployed because he is serving a prison term, informed the OGD correspondent that, from untilwhen he was imprisoned, he was engaged in "drug tourism for profit" trading on the difference in cocaine prices between Lagos and Abidjan.
He then smuggled the drug back into Abidjan concealed in his pocket. In a country such as South Africa, which, in some respects, resembles developed countries, trafficking takes on similar characteristics. Immigrants, Nigerian and Ghanaian traffickers, have, sincedominated the cocaine market in Johannesburg, where the numbers have reached 50, illegal aliens.
They have set their hearts on the hotels in the former residential neighbourhoods outside the downtown area, distribution centres where chlorhydrate is also transformed into crack.
It is also there that certain gangs from the townships of Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town kept their drug supplies. In the countries of the Gulf of Guinea, as in Southern Africa, the trafficking rings developed by buying protection from police and customs authorities, and indeed from members of the administration at much higher levels.
The oil price dubai per gram in nigeria noted above, most of the cannabis production is intended for the local or regional traffic, However, many countries, particularly Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, the DRC and most of the countries the oil price dubai per gram in nigeria Southern Africa, export increasing percentages of their production to Europe. The major ports of sub-Saharan Africa are also a transit route for hashish from Southwest Asia.
Although traffickers have long preferred to transship in East African ports particularly in Kenya and Mozambique, where tens of tonnes of that drug have been seized in recent yearsthe oil price dubai per gram in nigeria use has been observed in those of West Africa, where customs and port authority officers have been bought off. It has also been noted that Moroccan hashish traffickers have been using ports in nearby countries, in Spain and North Africa, particularly those of Cape Verde and Senegal.
In some instances, large quantities of heroin from Southeast Asia and cocaine from Latin America transit through those same ports. This is the case in particular of The oil price dubai per gram in nigeria Africa, where it is often difficult to determine what is destined for a large domestic market and what is to be re-exported.
However, aircraft are generally used for both imports and transit traffic. Starting in the early s, Nigerian traffickers who had swallowed condoms full of heroin were arrested at Lagos airport or at airports in European countries and the United States.
Since the late s, Southeast Asian heroin no. At the same time, Nigerians travelled to South America to pick up cocaine destined for European markets and, starting infor South African markets. Tens of African couriers are currently being held in Colombian, Ecuadorian and Brazilian prisons. Staring in the mids, Nigerian traffickers, knowing they were being watched by law enforcement departments in airports around the world, recruited couriers from among the nationals of other African countries, particularly Senegal, and even among white populations in disadvantaged European milieux West and East.
They then directed their rings without taking risks. It was first thought that the Nigerian organizations were mainly family- or clan-based.
According to various sources, however, particularly American, there is what could be called a genuine Mafia in Nigeria: The structure is found in the organization of the Nigerian rings in the United States. Operation Tongacarried out by European police in andalso showed that there were links between the Colombian Mafia, the Neapolitan Camorra and the Nigerian rings.
Similarly, Nigerians are well established in most Eastern countries. Their "bridgeheads" are most often scholarship students from communist regimes who have remained penniless since the political upheavals resulting from the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Nigerian traffickers are thus the only native African groups on the most wanted lists of the law enforcement agencies of the rich countries, together with international criminal organizations and the Colombian, Chinese, Turkish, Pakistani and, more recently, Kosovar drug rings.
From his exclusive ranch in Franschhoek, Palazzolo, now a South African citizen, is supervising activities as varied as ostrich farming, mineral water bottling, arms sales and transportation and destruction of toxic waste.