Ten Simple Rules for Digital Data Storage

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Computers can only work with digital information. Everything that they process must first be turned into a digital signal in one of two states: At a basic level a computer processor is a collection of switches which can the best binary and digital data be on or off. These switches are known as transistors.

The computer processes information by switching transistors on and off automatically. In order to process information and store it, computers use binary code. Binary is a language composed of just the numbers 1 and 0. It is stored in switches transistors as either on or off, just like the best binary and digital data digital signal. It can be stored on a computer disk using tiny areas magnetically charged with north and south - a bit like you find on a bar magnet. One direction stands for 1, and the other direction stands for 0.

When we say data is 'digitised' we mean it is turned into 1s and 0s for storage. Using just on and off to the best binary and digital data messages might seem very limiting. How can a computer process everything it does with just two signals? Even in Victorian times, people used sequences of on and off to communicate. They sent messages through the electric telegraph and these messages had to be converted into Morse code.

Morse code is a series of dots and dashes that represent all the letters of the alphabet, numbers and punctuation. The telegraph used a switch that was either on or off. The person listening at the far end of a telegraph wire could tell if the switch was on or off.

By changing the length of time it was on, the person listening could tell if it was a 'dot' a short the best binary and digital data or a 'dash' a longer signal. Morse code allowed the transmission of coded messages though cables over great distance, just with a series of dots and dashes, or on and off signals.

Binary is just another code except that instead of dots and dashes you can use 0s and 1s to represent numbers and letters. In binary, could be the number 97, or it could represent the letter 'a'.

Everything that is stored on a computer is digitised. It has been turned into binary code to be processed and stored. When you push keys on the keyboard you close the switch beneath the key. This information about which switch was closed is digitised, turned it into binary code and sent to the computer. When an image is scanned into a computer it is converted into pixels. Each of these pixels is a small square of colour, with a binary number telling the computer what colour each square is.

A scanner or camera the best binary and digital data an input device that is designed to capture an image by digitising it. In this video Nate looks at how you can use a scanner to digitise photos so that you can easily share them with friends and family. Information from input devices must be digitised so the information can be processed. Why do computers use binary? How do you communicate using only on and off?

Binary Binary is just another code except that instead of dots and dashes you can use 0s and 1s to represent numbers and letters. What the best binary and digital data can be turned into binary?

How can images be digitised? Please turn on JavaScript. Media requires JavaScript to play. Transcript PDF Kb. Looking for the old Bitesize primary games?

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A digital signal is a signal that is being used to represent data as a sequence of discrete values; at any given time it can only take on one of a finite number of values. Simple digital signals represent information in discrete bands of analog levels. All levels within a band of values represent the same information state. In most digital circuits , the signal can have two possible values; this is called a binary signal or logic signal.

These correspond to the two values "zero" and "one" or "false" and "true" of the Boolean domain , so at any given time a binary signal represents one binary digit bit. Because of this discretization , relatively small changes to the analog signal levels do not leave the discrete envelope, and as a result are ignored by signal state sensing circuitry.

As a result, digital signals have noise immunity ; electronic noise , provided it is not too great, will not affect digital circuits, whereas noise always degrades the operation of analog signals to some degree. Digital signals having more than two states are occasionally used; circuitry using such signals is called multivalued logic. For example, signals that can assume three possible states are called three-valued logic.

In a digital signal, the physical quantity representing the information may be a variable electric current or voltage, the intensity, phase or polarization of an optical or other electromagnetic field , acoustic pressure, the magnetization of a magnetic storage media, etcetera.

Digital signals are used in all digital electronics , notably computing equipment and data transmission. In digital electronics a digital signal is a pulse train a pulse amplitude modulated signal , i. In digital signal processing , a digital signal is a representation of a physical signal that is a sampled and quantized. A digital signal is an abstraction which is discrete in time and amplitude.

The signal's value only exists at regular time intervals, since only the values of the corresponding physical signal at those sampled moments are significant for further digital processing. The digital signal is a sequence of codes drawn from a finite set of values. In digital communications , a digital signal is a continuous-time physical signal, alternating between a discrete number of waveforms, [3] representing a bit stream message.

The shape of the waveform depends the transmission scheme, which may be either:. In communications, sources of interference are usually present, and noise is frequently a significant problem. The effects of interference are typically minimized by filtering off interfering signals as much as possible and by using data redundancy. The main advantages of digital signals for communications are often considered to be the immunity to noise that it may be possible to provide, and the ability, in many cases such as with audio and video data, to use data compression to greatly decrease the bandwidth that is required on the communication media.

In computer architecture and other digital systems, a waveform that switches between two voltage levels or less commonly, other waveforms representing the two states of a Boolean value 0 and 1, or Low and High, or false and true is referred to as a digital signal or logic signal or binary signal when it is interpreted in terms of only two possible digits.

The clock signal is a special digital signal that is used to synchronize many digital circuits. The image shown can be considered the waveform of a clock signal. Logic changes are triggered either by the rising edge or the falling edge.

The given diagram is an example of the practical pulse and therefore we have introduced two new terms that are:. Although in a highly simplified and idealized model of a digital circuit we may wish for these transitions to occur instantaneously, no real world circuit is purely resistive and therefore no circuit can instantly change voltage levels.

This means that during a short, finite transition time the output may not properly reflect the input, and will not correspond to either a logically high or low voltage. The two states of a wire are usually represented by some measurement of an electrical property: Voltage is the most common, but current is used in some logic families.

A threshold is designed for each logic family. When below that threshold, the signal is low , when above high. To create a digital signal, an analog signal must be modulated with a control signal to produce it. As we have already seen, the simplest modulation, a type of unipolar line coding is simply to switch on and off a DC signal, so that high voltages are a '1' and low voltages are '0'.

In digital radio schemes one or more carrier waves are amplitude or frequency or phase modulated with a signal to produce a digital signal suitable for transmission. In Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line over telephone wires , ADSL does not primarily use binary logic; the digital signals for individual carriers are modulated with different valued logics, depending on the Shannon capacity of the individual channel. Often digital signals are "sampled" by a clock signal at regular intervals by passing the signal through an "edge sensitive" flip-flop.

When this is done the input is measured at those points in time, and the signal from that time is passed through to the output and the output is then held steady till the next clock. This process is the basis of synchronous logic , and the system is also used in digital signal processing. However, asynchronous logic also exists, which uses no single clock, and generally operates more quickly, and may use less power, but is significantly harder to design.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about digital signals in electronics. For digital data and systems, see Digital data. For digital signals that specifically represent analog waveforms, see Digital signal signal processing.

For other uses, see Digital signal disambiguation. For a broader coverage related to this topic, see Signal electrical engineering. Digital signal signal processing. A logic signal waveform: The Art Of Electronics, 2nd Ed. A digital signal is a special form of discrete-time signal which is discrete in both time and amplitude, obtained by permitting each value sample of a discrete-time signal to acquire a finite set of values quantization , assigning it a numerical symbol according to a code A digital signal is a sequence or list of numbers drawn from a finite set.

Chitode, Communication Systems , Digital signal electronics Boolean algebra Logic synthesis Logic in computer science Computer architecture Digital signal signal processing Digital signal processing Circuit minimization Switching circuit theory. Logic synthesis Register-transfer level Formal equivalence checking Synchronous logic Asynchronous logic Finite-state machine.

Computer hardware Digital audio radio Digital photography Digital telephone Digital video cinema television Electronic literature.

Line coding digital baseband transmission. Unipolar encoding Bipolar encoding On-off keying. Carrier-suppressed return-to-zero Alternate-phase return-to-zero. Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication Optical fiber Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line.

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