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Adult learning is understood as: The follow-up of the Copenhagen process indicated that the enhanced cooperation in VET referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage proved successful and produced encouraging results.

Progress was reported in key areas such as national qualification frameworks NQFdevelopments of standards, redefining qualifications in terms of learning outcomes, validation of non-formal and informal learning, integrating learning with working, access and equity and guidance and counselling.

As regards areas to improve, concern was expressed that - whilst the focus of ongoing work has been on issues concerning quality, transparency and mutual recognition - less attention has been paid to the image and attractiveness of the vocational route.

The need for mutual learning across the EU and a more evidence-based training policy, including better use of statistical indicators and benchmarks was also expressed.

Adult participation, however, varies widely across the EU is still unsatisfactory in many participating countries see also section 2. In most countries, education and training systems are still largely focused on initial education and training. Referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage national reports only differentiate between initiatives concerning VET as opposed to adult learning to a limited extent.

The focus has been on issues concerning quality, transparency and mutual recognition, while less attention has been paid to the image and attractiveness of vocational pathways.

The national reports indicate that in many countries priority is being given to improving the image and attractiveness of vocational pathways referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage employers and individuals in order to increase participation in VET and adult learning. The measures to enhance the attractiveness of VET and adult learning cited in the national reports include: Flexible progression routes between systems.

Many countries are developing more flexible, modular and accumulative structures to facilitate the entry to initial VET as well as the return to the educational system. In Italy the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Labour have cooperated with the regions in order to facilitate the transfer of students between the systems of educations and vocational training, referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage horizontally, between one area of education and another, and vertically, from one level to another in all referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage of education.

Improved guidance on the VET options for adults Validation of non-formal and informal learning for further details see referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage 3. This is achieved through strengthening quality assurance procedures for education providers and apprenticeship training e.

Further details are given in section 6. The development of more flexible and modular VET systems and the generally increasing managerial autonomy of VET institutions make it a key future challenge to ensure that initiatives at system level to enhance VET attractiveness have synergy with initiatives taken at provider level.

Some of the measures are: In Spain guidance and information about access, exams, programmes and different offers is considered a priority due to the fact that adults with a certain training level are in general more demanding and discerning in relation to their further needs.

Public administrations will be in charge of disseminating and stimulating innovative approaches concerning adult education in order to promote and improve activities in this field.

In Austria projects to expand educational information and guidance and for increasing the level of professionalism and networking of educational counselling were conducted. Greece has introduced Centres of Distance Lifelong Education and Training for Adults that combine distance learning with traditional teaching of adults. The UK has introduced a system of individual learning accounts, to enable individuals to buy the training they feel they need; and a new universal adult careers service, to enable individuals to receive good advice about referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage training needs.

In Wales this has been developed into the first all-age online career service. As to the quality referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage adult education providers most national reports deal with such aspects in relation to the theme quality assurance section 6. Most measures concern the establishment of quality assurance systems, inspection procedures, self-evaluation systems and quality standards to improve the provision of adult learning. The increasing decentralisation and managerial autonomy of VET institutions intensifies the need for quality assurance and accountability systems.

Across the countries, student and institutional performance is monitored with a variety of mechanisms and institutional arrangements including: It varies between the countries whether the remit of the evaluation bodies includes all primary, secondary or tertiary education. For example the Italian guide for auto-evaluation of education and training infrastructures which facilitates the diffusion and implementation at national level of the auto-evaluation methodology.

Obligations for institution to use outcome and internal evaluation systems DK, IS. In Denmark, for example, this obligation applies to all upper secondary education schools, while the Icelandic obligation applies to compulsory as well as secondary schools.

Development of tests to improve transparency and quality of CVET providers DE In the context of VET and adult learning, several countries have introduced quality labels and quality standards that have to be achieved to receive public funding ES, FR, LI, LU In general, countries increasingly emphasise the development of quality assurance and evaluation.

However, there are differences as to how advanced referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage implementation of systems for evaluation and monitoring are. In these countries, the quality assurance procedures are comprehensive, regular, and mandatory.

The quality assurance systems in progress typically comprise self-assessment as well as external assessment components. In addition, it should be mentioned that in some countries quality assurance systems are structured around the accreditation of the training structures IT.

Slovenia for example, has developed a model for self-evaluation 'Offering quality education to adults' OQEAwhich is comparable with models of self-evaluation in other European countries and has many elements identified in the common European quality assurance framework CQAF. Competence development among adult teachers and trainers improving their pedagogical skills in teaching learner groups of mixed age levels and nationalities is also in focus in some countries AT, DE. Most countries continuously monitor and review the process.

Committees representing employer and employee organisations typically evaluate and develop qualification standards. In some of the countries, expert bodies at central level conduct forecasts of future skill needs and define national skills strategies BE nl, ES, IE. A study was commissioned to look at methods to identify early warnings. As a result of this study, the task force on future VET requirements recommended that referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage independent unit should be established in order to undertake anticipation studies relating to areas of convergence, growth sectors etc, though the government has not yet taken this recommendation forward.

Some countries deregulate accreditation conditions for VET colleges in order to start programmes with the aim of swifter adaptation to labour market needs NO. Some countries have increased apprenticeship training and on-the-job learning to enhance the link to labour referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage needs EE, FI, LT, MT, UK or introduced financial incentives for both the students and the entrepreneurs providing training HU.

The trend of increased referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage and accountability means that the provider level will have increasing responsibility for the continuous adaptation of curricula in cooperation with labour market representatives at local level. Consequently, a key challenge in the coming years will be to ensure that initiatives at system level, e. The enhancement of joint ventures involving VET providers, companies and other relevant organisation may require further competence development among heads of schools and teachers in the coming years.

As the learning outcomes based approach is increasingly being adopted questions related to the relationship between occupational and education-training standards become more important. Occupational standards, focussing on the expected performance at the labour market, will normally influence the definition and design of education and training standards and curricula.

The interplay between these two main forms or standards varies between different countries. Improving the quality of this "feed back loop" between the two is important. In France, programmes bearing the GretaPlus label are guaranteed to offer individualised services to participating trainees.

The Greta label is considered to ensure greater effectiveness in services provided to companies and jobseekers and public employment services that are better suited to the communities they serve. Lithuania and Slovenia have launched programmes focusing on the integration of the unemployed into the labour market. Some of the measures and policies in these countries include: Creation of effective and functional counselling systems addressing young people and adults to enhance LLL NL, SK More flexibility in adult education, widening the possibility for adults to choose their own learning path that will eventually be recognized within the educational system HR.

It is a general characteristic of the national policies and measures that strengthening the pathways is regarded as an important means to realise their national lifelong learning strategies. Enhancing validation of referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage formal and informal learning in further and higher education and training is also a key associated policy measure in several countries see further details in section 3. Though strengthening the pathways to HE is considered to improve the attractiveness of VET, potential obstacles and tensions between policies may be occur.

This is a cause for concern among employers PL. Adult learning Some countries have introduced more flexibility in adult education, widening the possibility for adults to referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage their own learning path that will eventually be recognised within the educational system AT, BE fr and nl, FR, HR, PL, SE.

An outcome or competence based approach is also important: The establishment of a neutral reference structure of learning outcomes based on the EQF will simplify comparison of qualifications and allow for a better match between the supply and demand for knowledge, skills and competence, and support labour market mobility throughout Europe. The rapid development of national qualifications frameworks based on learning outcomes form an important part of this shift in emphasis see also section 3.

It should be mentioned that some national reports do not provide information on learning outcomes approaches CY, DE, LI. However, the recent reports on progress within the Copenhagen process indicated that many countries are developing standards, curricula and redesigning examinations in line with the outcome based approach though they do not explicitly use the term learning outcomes.

In Germany for example the dual system encompasses many aspects of a learning outcomes approach already. The development of a German national qualification framework pays particular emphasis to the use of a learning outcome or competence based approach As illustrated by the Referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage case and as described in section 3.

Many are also developing curricula as well as examination procedures based on learning outcomes. The descriptions of learning outcomes and levels are usually drawn up in a dialogue with social partners and representatives of different trades and industries to ensure correspondence between the standards and labour market demands AT, ES, HU, LT, LU, SE, NO. Adult learning The establishment of learning outcomes is also linked to the national lifelong learning strategies and the enhancement of adult learning.

Validation of non-formal and informal learning is a key measure for motivating people to go back to learning. Learning outcomes render validation of non formal and informal learning much easier as these provide basis for assessment. Finland provides an interesting case of how adult learning and competence based qualifications are promoted through a personalised combination of guidance, counselling and teaching activities.

Personalisation in the system of competence-based qualifications means customer-oriented design and implementation of guidance, counselling, teaching, and support activities intended for the examinee and the student.

Personalisation is embodied in the process of completing a competence-based qualification or applying for education leading to a competence-based qualification and acquiring the necessary professional proficiency. Possible special needs arising from different cultural or linguistic backgrounds or medical reasons such as dyslexia are taken into account in the personalisation process. Consequently, in the reform processes many countries place increasing focus on up-skilling teacher competencies to achieve modernisation of school curricula and the enhancement of teaching and learning processes.

Team planning, advising, and supporting learners using individualised teaching plans, ICT-tools, project learning and problem solving are increasingly important aspects of competence. Many countries have launched a variety of measures emphasising continuing professional development of teachers.

However, the extent to which continuing professional development is mandatory differs between countries. Some countries have introduced referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage and funding mechanisms to encourage professional development.

In Denmark, for instance, VET institutions are obliged to draw up a plan for in-service training efforts to receive grants earmarked for upgrading teachers. Compared to other educational sectors, teachers and especially trainers in VET are less likely to have formal teaching qualifications because they are experienced vocational practitioners who take on teaching roles. Flexible educational programmes are required to fit educational activities into the working life, especially as regards trainers.

Such part time-models also exist in other countries. Gradually, countries are setting requirements for the role and competence requirements of trainers which in some countries have hitherto been referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage or regulated to only a limited extent LT, SE.

Adult learning The increasing emphasis on LLL and adult learning means that many VET teachers face new target groups and competence requirements. Teaching adults requires a different pedagogical approach than teaching young people. Consequently, the up-skilling also involves relational competences of teachers and trainers.

Quality development and skills upgrading for adult teachers and trainers are mentioned in referentiel bts hotellerie restauration option brokerage number of national reports e. Most national reports focus on competence development of teachers and trainers, while the competence development of other categories of staff such as management and administrative staff, tutors and guidance personnel etc. At system level, many national reports specify working institutional arrangements involving government departments, mainly ministries of education and labour, social partners and other key stakeholders.

The learning partnerships typically cooperate and establish agreements on national systems of qualifications, teaching and training activities and guidance. LLL and continuous adult education are currently important issues.

At provider level, the increasing decentralisation and managerial autonomy of VET institutions means that guidance, team-working, cooperation with enterprises and communication with stakeholders is of growing importance.

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