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An accurate knowledge of the Internet ip timestamp option detection is essential for a deep understanding of such a complex and ever-evolving system. In the last decade many attempts have been done to overcome the incompleteness of BGP-derived AS-level topologies using traceroute. One source of inaccuracy is represented by third-party TP addresses. TP addresses ip timestamp option detection associated to interfaces which are not actually traversed by the IP packets sent toward the traceroute destination.
In fact, according to RFCthe source address of an ICMP error packet should correspond to the outgoing interface of the Ip timestamp option detection reply, rather than the ip timestamp option detection on which the packet triggering the error was received. This behavior can ip timestamp option detection a traceroute IP path to include a TP address. For instance, in the following figure the trace from a source S to a destination D contains the sequence abc of IP addresses, where a and b are associated to the incoming interfaces of router A and B respectively while c is the interface used by router C to send ICMP replies to the traceroute originator, i.
The occurrence of TP addresses can have a significant impact on some traceroute applications. The major impact is related to the inference of AS-level links from traceroute traces because TP addresses may cause the inference of false AS links. To solve the TP address problem we propose the first active probing technique able to directly detect the presence of TP addresses in traceroute IP path.
The technique requires two probes to understand if an IP address discovered by traceroute lies on the path OP or not TP. In order to understand if the hop Y discovered by traceroute toward D is a TP address, the proposed technique works according to the following steps: Y is classifiable when it provides between timestamps; Y is not classifiable otherwise.
The first step is necessary because there are other less common router behaviors ip timestamp option detection may lead the technique to misleading results. Indeed, adopting a conservative approach, a traceroute hop Y is considered non-classifiable every time there is no clear evidence that its router has a per network interface stamping behavior, as in the following circumstances: Y is a part of a private addressing block; no reply is received from Y and the targeted device dropped the probe or the reply was filtered along the path; the reply message is received from Y but it contains no TS option; the targeted device ignores the TS option, without inserting any timestamp in the reply; the targeted device provides 4 timestamps.
We also implemented and made publicly available an enhanced GNU GPLv3 traceroute version, based on Paris-Traceroute, which applies our technique to classify the hops discovered along the path toward the destination.
Click here for the code and documentation. Performing a large scale measurement ip timestamp option detection, we evaluate the technique showing that: To perform the campaign we used 53 PlanetLab nodes located in different ASes as vantage points. The obtained results highlight an unexpected general trend: Hence, according to the router behaviour desribed above, most of the intermediate routers encountered along the path reply to the traceroute originator using an interface different from the ones traversed by the packets sent to the targeted destination.
Our dataset is publicly available at this link: Problem and impact TP addresses are associated to interfaces which are not actually traversed by the IP packets sent toward the traceroute destination. Cloud Monitoring and Control. Traffic analysis and classification. Traffic and data traces. Heterogenous networks data ip timestamp option detection. TP addresses may also impact subnet positioning and alias resolution. Our Proposal To solve the TP address problem we propose the first active probing technique able to directly detect the presence of TP addresses in traceroute IP path.
The Code We also implemented and made publicly available an enhanced GNU GPLv3 traceroute version, based on Paris-Traceroute, which applies our technique to classify the hops discovered along the path toward the destination. Experimental evaluation Performing a large scale measurement campaign, we evaluate the technique showing ip timestamp option detection Dataset Our dataset is publicly available at this link: