Binary file

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A binary file is a computer file that is not a text file. Binary files are usually thought of as being a sequence of byteswhich means the binary digits bits are grouped in eights. Binary files typically contain bytes that are intended to be interpreted as something other than text characters. Compiled computer programs are typical examples; indeed, compiled applications are sometimes referred to, particularly by programmers, as binaries. But binary files can also mean that they contain images, sounds, compressed versions of other files, etc.

Some binary files contain headersblocks of metadata used by a computer program to interpret the data in the file. The header often contains a signature or magic number which can identify the format. For example, a GIF file can contain multiple images, and headers are used to identify and describe each block of image data. If a binary file export compiled binaries and headers not contain any headers, it may be called a flat binary file. To send binary files through certain systems such as email that do not allow all data values, they are often translated into a plain text representation using, for example, Base The increased size may be countered by lower-level link compression, as the resulting text data will have about as much less entropy as it has increased size, so the actual data transferred in this scenario would likely be very close to the size of the original binary data.

See Binary-to-text encoding for more on this subject. A export compiled binaries and headers editor or viewer may be used to view file data as a sequence of hexadecimal or decimal, binary or ASCII character values for corresponding bytes of a binary file. If a binary file is opened in a text editoreach group of eight bits will typically be translated as a single character, and the user will see a probably unintelligible display of textual characters.

If the file is opened in some other application, that application will have its own use for each byte: Other type of viewers called export compiled binaries and headers extractors' simply replace the unprintable characters with spaces revealing only the human-readable text.

This type of view is useful for quick inspection of a binary file in order to find passwords in games, find hidden text in non-text files and recover corrupted documents. If the file is itself treated as an executable and run, then the operating system will attempt to interpret the file as a series of instructions in its machine language. Standards are very important to binary files. For example, a binary file interpreted by the ASCII character set will result in text being export compiled binaries and headers. A custom application can interpret the file differently: Binary itself is meaningless, until such time as an executed algorithm defines what should be export compiled binaries and headers with each bit, byte, word or block.

Thus, just examining the binary and attempting to match it against known formats can lead to the wrong conclusion as to what it actually represents. This fact can be used in steganographywhere an algorithm interprets a binary data file differently to reveal hidden content.

Without the algorithm, it is impossible to tell that hidden content exists. Two files that are binary compatible will have the same sequence of zeros and ones in the data portion of the file. The file header, however, binary options signals demo account application be different. The term is used most commonly to state that data files produced by one application are exactly the same as data files produced by another application.

For example, some software companies produce applications for Export compiled binaries and headers and the Macintosh that are binary compatible, which means that a file produced in a Windows environment is interchangeable with a file produced on a Macintosh. This avoids many of the conversion problems caused by importing and exporting data. One possible binary compatibility issue between different computers is the endianness of the computer. Some computers store the bytes in a file in a different order.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For double stars, see Binary star. For the CD image format, see Disk image. This article does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. For binary code executable file compatibility, see Binary compatible. Open Close Read Write. File comparison File compression File manager Comparison of file managers File system permissions File transfer File sharing File verification.

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Header files - include preprocesor keyword is used to include a header file in a C program. Header files does not include any function definitions except static or inline type. Library - We often write our program with the help of API or with function calls which are imported from other modules like C Library.

Compiler contains several library files are to resolve external symbols during linking process. These library files are nothing but pre-compiled object binaries given by compiler tool chain or by external third party vendors.

Library file are in compiled binary format and thus source are protected. In this way Compiler toolchain providers or third party vendors expose thier software components to public and same time protects thier source code copyright. There are two types of libraries: Static libraries are like complied object code archived inside a single tar file.

Linker takes only the object code during linking time. This is same like using another object code of a source file except the source C file is not given. Source code for libraries are not given in the compiler. The reason can be the copy-right. Static link has one disadvantage as it increases the code size and code sharing between two modules is not possible.

Dynamic link libraries have these advantages. DLL executable comes in a separate binary file and it will be loaded in a common area of the OS and can be shared across many applications. Compilation - Compiler generates object code from source file. Object codes are intermediate code needed by the linker.

After preprocessing a single file gets expanded with headers and macros. Now it passes to compiler. Compiler does syntax checking, validation and generates object code. Compiler also works in conjunction with optimizer.

The job of optimizer is to arrange the code or steps in such a way to reduce size or execution time. For example to optimize execution time optimizer often takes a frequently used local variable in one of CPU register. This ensures speed optimization. Again optimizer sometimes changes logic flow of the code to make the output size smaller. Here it is clear that optimizer alters program a bit thus line by like stepping info may not be generated when optimization has been applied.

Linker takes all object files and combined into one output binary. Linker links external symbols between these object files and also arranges code, rodata, data and BSS segments and generates a binary in the form of formats often known as a.

Now it is clear that linker checks the definition all symbols which is there in all object files but what will happen to the symbols which are imported from external libraries. For these external symbols linker needs library files. There are mainly two types of library files - Static and dynamic. Static libraries are same as object files archived in a container. Thus linking to static library is same as linking to an object file. Dynamic libraries are compiled and linked binary file.

There is concept of exporting table for symbols. Dynamic link library exports a set of function symbols through an export table. An application or C program imports these external symbols by means of import table. During linking linker checks the symbol if it is imported from a DLL it creates an import table and there it writes the DLL name and function entry point. This way linker links these symbols. It is the job of the loader of load the imported DLL first into the memory and checks the linkage then load the source application and links the import table with the exported function from DLL.

This is called dynamic linking. Program loader does this process. Running - We execute a program in shell and we get the output in the console. This seems very simple but a huge process is involved in this. There is a loader for a.

It reads header of the binary and checks and validates code, rodata, data, BSS, import, export table etc. After this it loads corresponding segments in memory. If there are external symbols in import table it also loads all related dynamic link libraries if not loaded earlier. One thing to point here is loader also populates all the export entries of the DLL with proper loaded address. Then it links all the symbols of the external libraries to the loaded application.

It links via import table. It fills all the entry address of the external symbols from the export table of the DLL to import table of the application. C runtime library glibc is one of such dynamic link library which takes these steps of loading.

Now all the linking and loading process are done. So it creates task and copies these loaded address to code, rodata, data and BSS segments. It also creates a stack and heap space. There is a small startup code to do all the initialization. Then after all segment initialization it opens three files with descriptors stdin, stdout and stderr. These file descriptors are used for taking inputs and printing outputs and errors. Next thing is argument parsing and creating argument count argc and argument vector argv.

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