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Most digital cameras support a number of digital camera modes for use in various situations. Professional DSLR cameras provide several manual modes; consumer point-and-shoot cameras emphasize automatic modes; and amateur prosumer cameras often have a wide variety of both manual and automatic modes.
Manual-enabled modes give the photographer control over the various parameters of an exposure. For a given exposure, this is an underdetermined system , as there are three inputs but only one output. Accordingly, there are many combinations that result in the same exposure — for example, decreasing the aperture by one stop but increasing the exposure time or sensitivity to compensate, and there are various possible algorithms to automatically choose between these.
Most often, ISO is considered separately, being either set manually or set to Auto ISO, and then only aperture and shutter speed need be determined — either determines the other. In cases where there is camera discretion e. For example, as of [update] , Nikon cameras allow one to set the maximum and minimum ISO sensitivities, and slowest shutter speed that will be used in automatic modes,  while Canon cameras will select within the fixed range of ISO —ISO in Auto ISO mode.
In Nikon cameras, the Auto ISO mode first adjusts the shutter speed, keeping ISO at its minimum desired value, then, when shutter speed reaches the user-defined limit, the ISO is increased, up to the maximum value.
In automatic modes the camera determines all aspects of exposure, choosing exposure parameters according to the application within the constraints of correct exposure, including exposure, aperture, focusing, light metering, white balance, and equivalent sensitivity.
For example, in portrait mode the camera would use a wider aperture to render the background out of focus, and would seek out and focus on a human face rather than other image content. In the same light conditions a smaller aperture would be used for a landscape, and recognition of faces would not be enabled for focusing. Some cameras have tens of modes. Many cameras do not document exactly what their many modes do; for full mastery of the camera one must experiment with them.
Aside from the main modes which control exposure, there are usually other, secondary settings common to digital cameras; examples follow. Shooting modes — "Burst" or "rapid fire" mode will take a number of photographs in quick succession, often used when a photograph of a specific instance is needed e. Autofocus modes — autofocus can either activate until a lock is found single, AF-S or be continuously active continuous, AF-C, servo.
Single mode is especially used for stationary subjects, when focus, once found, should stay fixed, while continuous mode is instead used for moving subjects. Some AF systems also include anticipation of position of moving subjects — Canon calls this " AI servo " for " artificial intelligence " — or can automatically switch between single and continuous depending on whether the subject is moving — Canon calls this "AI focus". A separate but often related distinction is between focus priority and release priority — whether the camera will take a picture when the subject is out of focus or not.
In focus priority, the camera will only take a picture when the subject is in focus as detected by the AF system , while in release priority, the camera will take a picture whenever the shutter is pressed. These are usually combined — for stationary subjects, AF is set to single lock when found and release is set to focus priority, while for moving subjects, AF is set to continuous and release is set to release priority. Manual focus is generally in release priority — AF is neither detected nor set.
Focus priority can also be used for the trap focus trick, to take a picture only when a subject hits a focus point, by using AF to detect focus but not set it. Flash modes allow the user to choose between common settings such as " Fill flash " to always use flash, "Auto flash" which will use flash in low-lit areas, "Red-eye reduction" which may flash once before the actual photo in order to shrink the subject's pupils and reduce red-eye, or "Flash off" which will never use flash.
Flash can have its own exposure compensation — how brightly it flashes — which allows one to independently adjust the exposure of the foreground lit by flash and background out of flash range. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it.