P5: Recommandations pour l'encodage et l'échange de textes électroniques
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This chapter addresses the problems of describing an encoded work so that the text itself, its source, its encoding, and its revisions are all thoroughly documented. Such documentation is equally necessary for scholars using the texts, for software processing them, and for cataloguers in libraries and archives.
Together these descriptions and declarations provide an electronic analogue to the title page attached to a printed work. They also constitute an equivalent for the content of the code books or introductory manuals customarily accompanying electronic data sets. Every TEI-conformant text must carry such a set of descriptions, prefixed to it and encoded as described in this chapter. The set is known as the TEI headertagged teiHeaderand has four major parts:.
A TEI header can be a very large and complex object, or it may be a very simple one. Some application areas for example, the construction of language corpora and the transcription of spoken texts may require more specialized and detailed information than others.
The present proposals therefore define binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality a core set of elements all of which may be used without formality in any TEI header and some additional elements which become available within the header as the result of including additional specialized modules within the schema.
When the module for language corpora described in chapter 15 Language Corpora is in use, for example, several additional elements are available, as further detailed in that chapter. The next section of the present chapter briefly introduces the overall structure of the header and the kinds of data it may contain.
This is followed by a detailed description of all the constituent elements which may be used in the core header.
The teiHeader element should be clearly distinguished from the front matter of the text itself for which see section 4. A composite text, such as a corpus or collection, may contain several headers, as further discussed below. In the general case, however, a TEI-conformant text will contain a single teiHeader element, followed by a single text or facsimile element, or both.
As discussed above, the teiHeader element has four principal components:. The elements occurring within the TEI header may contain several types of content; the following list indicates how these types of content are described in the following sections:. The TEI header provides a very rich collection of metadata categories, but makes binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality claim to be exhaustive.
It is certainly the case that individual projects may wish to record specialized metadata which either does not fit within one of the predefined categories identified by the TEI header or requires a more specialized element structure than is proposed here. To overcome this problem, the encoder may elect to define additional elements using the customization methods discussed in The TEI class system makes such customizations simpler to binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality and easier to use in interchange.
This section describes the fileDesc element, which is the first component of the teiHeader element. The bibliographic description of a machine-readable or digital text resembles in structure that of a book, an article, or any other kind of textual object. The file description element of the TEI header has therefore been closely modelled on existing standards in library cataloguing; it should thus provide enough information to allow users to give standard bibliographic references to the electronic text, and to allow cataloguers to catalogue it.
Bibliographic citations occurring elsewhere in the header, and also in the text itself, are derived from the same model on bibliographic citations in binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality, see further section 3. See further section 2. The bibliographic description of an electronic text should be supplied by the mandatory fileDesc element:. The fileDesc element contains three mandatory elements and four optional elements, each of which is described in more detail in sections 2.
These elements are listed below in the order in which they must be given within the fileDesc element. The binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality element is the first component of the fileDesc element, and is mandatory:. It contains the title given to the electronic work, together with one or more optional statements of responsibility which identify the encoder, editor, author, compiler, or other parties responsible for it:.
The title element contains the chief name of the electronic work, including any alternative title or subtitles it may have. It may be repeated, if the work has more than one title perhaps in different languages and takes whatever form binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality considered appropriate by its creator.
This will distinguish the electronic work from the source text in citations and in catalogues which contain descriptions of both types of material. This name is likely to change frequently, as new copies of the file are made on the computer system. Its form is entirely dependent on the particular computer system in use and thus cannot always easily be transferred from one system to another.
Moreover, a given work may be composed of many files. For these binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality, these Guidelines binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality recommend that such names should not be used as the title for any electronic work. Helpful guidance on the formulation of useful descriptive titles in difficult cases may be found in chapter 25 of Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules — or another national cataloguing code.
The elements authoreditorsponsorfunderand principalare specializations of the more general respStmt element. These elements are used to provide the statements of responsibility which identify the person s responsible for the intellectual binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality artistic content of an item and any corporate bodies from which it emanates.
Any number of such statements may occur within the title statement. At a minimum, identify the author of the text and where appropriate the creator of the file.
If binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality bibliographic description is for a corpus, identify the creator binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality the corpus. Optionally include also names of others involved in the transcription or elaboration of the text, sponsors, and funding agencies.
The name of the person responsible for physical data input need not normally be recorded, unless that person is also intellectually responsible for some aspect of the creation of the file. Where the person whose responsibility is to be documented is not an author, sponsor, funding body, or principal researcher, the respStmt element should be used. This has binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality subcomponents: No specific recommendations are made at this time as to appropriate content for the resp: Names given may be personal names or corporate names.
Give all names in the form in which the persons or bodies wish to be publicly cited. This would usually be the fullest form binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality the name, including first names. The editionStmt element is the second component of the fileDesc element. It is optional but recommended.
It contains either phrases or more specialized elements identifying the edition and those responsible for it:. For printed texts, the word edition applies to the set of all the identical copies of an item produced from one master copy and issued by a particular publishing agency or a group of such agencies.
A change in the identity of the distributing body or bodies does not normally constitute a change of edition, while a change in the master copy does. Synonymous terms used binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality these Guidelines are versionleveland release. The words revision and updateby contrast, are used for minor changes to a file which do not amount to a new edition. The general principle proposed here is that the production of a new edition entails a significant change in the intellectual content of the file, rather than its encoding or appearance.
The addition of analytic coding to a text would thus constitute a new edition, while automatic conversion from one coded representation to another binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality not. Changes relating to the character code or physical storage details, corrections of misspellings, simple changes in the arrangement of the contents and changes in the binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality format do not normally constitute a new edition, whereas the addition of new information e.
Clearly, there will always be borderline cases and the matter is somewhat arbitrary. The simplest rule is: An edition statement is optional for the first release of a computer file; it is mandatory for each later release, though this requirement cannot be enforced by the parser. Note that all changes in a file considered significant, whether or not they are regarded as constituting a new edition or simply a new revision, should be independently noted in the revision description section of the file header see section 2.
The edition element should contain phrases describing the edition or version, including the word editionversionor equivalent, together with a number or date, or terms indicating difference from other editions such as new editionrevised edition etc. Any dates that occur within the edition statement should be marked with the date element. The n attribute of the edition element may be used as elsewhere to supply any formal identification such as a version number for the edition.
One or more respStmt elements may also be used to supply statements of responsibility for the edition in question. These may refer to individuals or corporate bodies and can indicate functions such as that of a reviser, or can name the person or body responsible for the provision of supplementary matter, of appendices, etc.
For further detail on the respStmt element, see section 3. The extent element binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality the third component of the fileDesc element.
For printed books, information about the carrier, such as the kind of medium used and its size, are of great importance in cataloguing procedures. The print-oriented rules for bibliographic description of an item's medium and extent need some re-interpretation when applied to electronic media. An electronic file exists as a distinct entity quite independently of its carrier and remains the same intellectual object whether it is stored on a magnetic tape, a CD-ROM, a set of floppy disks, or as a file on a mainframe computer.
Since, moreover, these Guidelines are specifically aimed at facilitating transparent document storage and interchange, any purely machine-dependent information should be irrelevant as far as the file header is concerned. This is particularly true of information about file-type although library-oriented rules for cataloguing often distinguish two types of computer file: This distinction is quite difficult to draw in some cases, for example, hypermedia or texts with built in search and retrieval software.
Although it is equally system-dependent, some measure of the size of the computer file may be of use for cataloguing and other practical purposes. Because the measurement and expression of file size is fraught with difficulties, only very general recommendations are possible; the element extent is provided for this purpose.
It contains a phrase indicating the size or approximate size of the computer file in one of the following ways:. The use of standard abbreviations for units of quantity is recommended where applicable, here as elsewhere see http: The publicationStmt element binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality the fourth component of binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality fileDesc element and is mandatory.
It may contain either a simple prose description organized as one or more paragraphs, or one or more elements from the model. This class groups a number of elements which are discussed in order below. The publisher is the person or institution by whose authority a given edition of the file is made public. The distributor is the person or institution from whom copies of the text may be obtained.
Where a text is not considered formally published, but is nevertheless made available for circulation by some individual or organization, this person or institution is termed the release authority. At least one of the above three elements must be binaire decimal tableau de borderline personality, unless the entire publication statement is given as prose. Each may be followed by one or more of the following elements, in the following order: Note that the dates, places, etc.
If the text was created at some date other than its date of publication, its date of creation should be given within the profileDesc element, not in the publication statement. Give any other useful dates e. Additional detailed elements may be used for the encoding of names, dates, and addresses, as further described in section 3. Where the work is covered by a formal licence such as a Creative Commons licencethe licence element may be included in availabilitywith its target attribute pointing to an instance of the licence document.
The content of the licence element may include the full text of the licence, or a brief statement of its applicability. The seriesStmt element is the fifth component of the fileDesc element and is optional. In bibliographic parlance, a series may be defined in one of the following ways:.