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Dematerialized account number is quoted for all transactions to enable electronic settlements of trades to take place. Every shareholder will have a Dematerialized account for the purpose of transacting.
Access to the Dematerialized account requires an internet password and a transaction password. Transfers or purchases of securities can then be initiated. Purchases and sales of securities on the Dematerialized account are automatically made once transactions are confirmed and completed.
Further, it eliminates the risks associated with forgery and due to damaged stock certificates. After the introduction of the depository system by the Depository Act of , the process for sales, purchases and transfers of shares became significantly easier and most of the risks associated with paper certificates were mitigated. In , trading began on NSE for shares held in demat account form. It was the beginning of a new paperless trading stock market trading environment.
If an investor buys a share today, it gets credited to the investor's account in two days. Today, shares get transferred to the investor's demat account. The depository system helps in reducing the cost of new issues due to lower printing and distribution costs.
It increases the efficiency. Benefit to the investor: The depository system reduces risks involved in holding physical certificates, e. It ensures transfer settlements and reduces delay in registration of shares. It ensures faster communication to investors.
It helps avoid bad delivery problems due to signature differences, etc. It ensures faster payment on sale of shares. No stamp duty is paid on transfer of shares. It provides more acceptability and liquidity of securities. It reduces risks of delayed settlement. It ensures greater profit due to increase in volume of trading. It eliminates chances of forgery or bad delivery. It increases overall trading and profitability.
It increases confidence in their investors. A depository in simple terms is an institution holding a pool of pre-verified shares held in electronic mode that offers efficient settlement of transactions. A Depository Participant DP is an intermediary between the investor and the depository.
A DP is typically a financial organization like a bank, broker, financial institution, or custodian acting as an agent of the depository to make its services available to the investors.
Converting physical records of investments into electronic records is called "dematerialising" of securities. In order to dematerialise physical securities, investors must fill in a Demat Request Form DRF , which is available with the DP and submit the same along with physical certificates. A comparison of the fees charged by different DPs is detailed below.
There are a few distinct advantages of having a bank as a DP. Having a Demat account with a bank DP, usually provides quick processing, accessibility, convenience, and online transaction capability to the investor. Generally, banks credit the Demat account with shares in case of purchase, or credit a savings account with the proceeds of a sale, on the third day.
Banks are also advantageous because of the number of branches they have. Some banks give the option of opening a demat account in any branch, while others restrict themselves to a select set of branches. Some private banks also provide online access to the demat account. Hence, the investors can conveniently check online details of their holdings, transactions and status of requests through their bank's net-banking facility.
A broker who acts as a DP may not be able to provide these services. There are four major charges usually levied on a demat account: Charges for all fees vary from DP to DP.
Depending on or may not be an opening account fee. However, players such as Elite Wealth advisors Ltd. But in Ventura Securities ltd, Angel Broking  and some other companies do not have an any opening charge. State Bank of India does not charge any account opening charge while other maintenance and transaction charges apply. Most players levy this when re-opening a demat account.
The fee is also refundable. This is also known as folio maintenance charges, and is generally levied in advance. It is charged on annual or monthly basis. The fee also differs based on the kind of transaction buying or selling. Some DPs charge only for debiting the securities, while others charge for both.
In addition, service tax is also charged by the DPs. In addition to the other fees, the DP also charges a fee for converting the shares from the physical to the electronic form or vice versa.
This fee varies for both demat physical-to-electronic and remat electronic-to-physical requests. For demat transactions, some DPs charge a flat fee per request in addition to the variable fee per certificate, while others charge only the variable fee.
For instance, Stock Holding Corporation has charged Rs 25 as the request fee and Rs 3 per certificate as the variable fee.
However, SBI has charged only the variable fee, as Rs 3 per certificate. Remat requests also have charges akin to that of demat. However, variable charges for remat are generally higher than demat. Some of the additional features usually offered by banks are as follows. Some DPs offer a frequent-trader account, where they charge frequent traders at lower rates than the standard charges. Demat account holders are generally required to pay the DP an advance fee for each account that will be adjusted against the various service charges.
The account holder needs to raise the balance when it falls below a certain amount prescribed by the DP. However, if the holders also hold a savings account with the DP, they can provide a debit authorisation to the DP for paying this charge.
Finally, once choosing a DP, it would be prudent to keep all accounts with that DP, so that tracking of capital gains liability is easier. This is because when calculating capital gains tax , the period of holding will be determined by the DP, and different DPs follow different methods. The proof of the cost of acquisition will be the contract note. The computation of capital gains is done account-wise. All applicants should carry original documents for verification by an authorized official of the depository participant, under his signature.
Further, the investor has to sign an agreement with the DP in a depository prescribed standard format, which details rights and duties of investor and DP. DP should provide the investor with a copy of the agreement and schedule of charges for their future reference.
The DP may revise the charges by giving 30 days notice in advance. SEBI has rationalised the cost structure for dematerialisation by removing account-opening charges, transaction charges for credit of securities, and custody charges vide circular dated January 28, You have to sign a contract with Stock broker.
Generally the documents are:. The first check made is whether both Demat accounts are at the same depository. There are two depositories: The investor should submit the DIS when the market is open.